Source:Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 19:7205-20, 2011
As a continuation of our studies focused on the vitamin D compounds lacking the C,D-hydrindane system, 13,13-dimethyl-des-C,D analogues of (20S)-1α,25-dihydroxy-2-methylene-19-norvitamin D(3) (2, 2MD) were prepared by total synthesis. The known cyclohexanone 30, a precursor of the desired A-ring phosphine oxide 11, was synthesized starting with the keto acetal 13, whereas the aldehyde 12, constituting an acyclic 'upper' building block, was obtained from the isomeric esters 34, prepared previously in our laboratory. The commercial 1,4-cyclohexanedione monoethylene ketal (13) was enantioselectively α-hydroxylated utilizing the α-aminoxylation process catalyzed by l-proline, and the introduced hydroxy group was protected as a TBS, TPDPS, and SEM ether. Then the keto group in the obtained compounds 15-17 was methylenated and the allylic hydroxylation was performed with selenium dioxide and pyridine N-oxide. After separation of the isomers, the newly introduced hydroxy group was protected and the ketal group hydrolyzed to yield the corresponding protected (3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxycyclohexanones 30-32. The esters 34, starting compounds for the C,D-fragment 12, were first α-methylated, then reduced and the resulted primary alcohols 36 were deoxygenated using the Barton-McCombie protocol. Primary hydroxy group in the obtained diether 38 was deprotected and oxidized to furnish the aldehyde 12. The Wittig-Horner coupling of the latter with the anion of the phosphine oxide 11, followed by hydroxyl deprotection furnished two isomeric 13,13-dimethyl-des-C,D analogues of 2MD (compounds 10 and 42) differing in configuration of their 7,8-double bond. Pure vitamin D analogues were isolated by HPLC and their biological activity was examined. The in vitro tests indicated that, compared to the analogue 7, unsubstituted at C-13, the synthesized vitamin D analogue 10 showed markedly improved VDR binding ability, significantly enhanced HL-60 differentiation activity as well as increased transcriptional potency. Docking simulations provided a rational explanation for the observed binding affinity of these ligands to the VDR. Biological in vivo tests proved that des-C,D compound 10 retained some intestinal activity. Its geometrical isomer 42 was devoid of any biological activity.